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Brussels Conference declaration

On December 12, 2018 I wrote an article under a title “What is expected from the Brussels Conference?” in regard to a conference held from 13/12 to 14/12/2018 organized by concerned international organizations to discuss about the current situation of Eritrea and convey their findings to the EU Commission so that EU can have a broader understanding of the current and most pressing situation about Eritrea.

In my article, I criticized the organizers of this conference for being non trasparent about the their programs. Nevertheless, I wished them a good luck for its success. I was not one of the participant. But, I visited there to see how successful was their  conference and to discuss with the participants which I actually did. 

I entered the conference room freely and got an opportunity to observe the last minutes of writings their declaration. What I observed was very encouraging. The environment was friendly, open and serious about every words uttered. I did a short report about my observation (please follow the facebook video below). And, the declaration is provided below the video. 

In general, I can say that based on my short time observation, discussions I did and after reading the declaration, it is easy for me to conclude the conference was successful. 

This declaration was extracted from Martin Plaut’s page. Please follow the origin publication by clicking here.

Declaration: Call to stop Human Trafficking in Eritrea, Sudan and Libya and ensure that the migrants in Europe and Israel are properly welcomed

“We the People: Peace in the Horn & the Safety and Future of the Eritrean People.”

Brussels Conference, 12-14 December, 2018

The conference “We the People, Peace in the Horn & the Safety and Future of the Eritrean People” was held with over 200 representatives and members of the Eritrean diaspora, delegations from Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, Zimbabwe, Canada, the United States, Italy, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Belgium, the United Kingdom and Ireland and the representatives of the 25,500 Eritrean asylum-seekers in Israel who were not allowed to travel due to lack of legal status. The situation of the Eritrean people following the peace process in the Horn was considered. The conference coincided with the EU Summit which discussed a multi-annual financial package for migration.

Hearing new witness evidence, the conference welcomed the peace process in the Horn, but expressed grave concern that the Eritrean people continue to suffer under the desperate and slave-like conditions during indefinite national service, arbitrary detentions and that political prisoners and prisoners of conscience are still held in incommunicado detention.

The conference heard first-hand witness reports of the situation in Eritrea, Ethiopia, Sudan, Libya, the wider African continent, Israel and Europe. The conference heard of the increased influx of Eritrean refugees into Ethiopia, and for many the onward movement to other countries while in the hands of human traffickers.

The conference considered the evidence of the involvement of Eritrean officials in the human trafficking of its people and the protection of those involved in human trafficking of the Eritrean people. The conference welcomed the UN and EU sanctions adopted in June 2018 on those responsible for the criminal organisation and harbouring of human trafficking including Eritrean authorities who are implicated in these abuses. Based on the evidence heard the conference:

  • Vehemently condemns the involvement of Eritrean top officials in human trafficking of Eritrean citizens across the Eritrean borders;
  • Strongly condemns the European Union’s Khartoum process to fight human trafficking, under the chairmanship of Eritrea, a country which protects and harbours Eritrean top officials involved in human trafficking of its people and has failed to fight the practice;
  • Strongly condemns human trafficking through torture, rape, sexual violence and extortion, leading vulnerable refugees into dehumanised, slave-like conditions;
  • Condemns in the strongest way, the financing of military and militia-groups through governments and authorities in Libya, Sudan and Eritrea and elsewhere, criminalising protection-seeking refugees and failing to provide safety for victims of human trafficking;
  • Strongly condemns the lack of transformation in Eritrea, the continued and indefinite national service and slave-like conditions of desperation and lack of freedom in Eritrea, calling members of the reserve army, the random arrests and disappearances, the exploitation of Eritrean people in desperate poverty and state of powerlessness;
  • The systematic attack on and dispossession of all communities such as the Afar.

The conference calls on the African Union, the European Union, Israel and the international community to:

  • Seek constructive collaboration on migration and refugee policy in full protection of international law, human rights law and women’s’ rights, peace and security mandates;
  • End any financial support provided directly or indirectly to military and militia in Libya, Sudan and Eritrea and elsewhere for the combat of human trafficking, that can be abused by them;
  • investigate the involvement of military and militia in human trafficking;
  • Urgently lead joint action to evacuate Eritrean refugees held in torture houses in Libya, and bring them to safety and for increased efforts of solidarity to resettle vulnerable refugees and minors;
  • Stop criminalising groups and individuals attempting to undertake rescue missions or to protect refugees in and around the Mediterranean;
  • Stop the detention of refugees in dehumanised conditions in camps and ensure the integration and participation in society and ensure the protection of women and children, especially separated and unaccompanied minors;
  • Learn from countries, such as Uganda, to integrate refugees productively in societies and create constructive win-win situations for those in need of protection and home-communities;
  • Immediately stop any refoulement and plans for deportation of refugees to Eritrea, as long as their lives are in danger in Eritrea and the situation does not allow for a safe return;
  • Prosecute the organisation of human trafficking from the top downwards under the rule of law and immediately release those proven innocent of such crimes;
  • Urgently step up efforts for collaboration on the protection of refugees and victims of human trafficking, especially Eritrean refugees across both continents;
  • Seek reforms in Eritrea – that includes ending the indefinite national service, unconditionally freeing all political prisoners and implementing the constitution – so that Eritrean refugees can safely return to their homeland;
  • Urgently step up efforts to protect the minorities in the Horn region, among which the Afar and to involve the Eritrean people, including women, within the peace process and mediation;
  • End all criminalisation of humanitarian action and solidarity between peace-seeking people, refugees and victims of human trafficking;
  • Help and support the Eritrean diaspora to continue working towards peace in the Horn and safety and a secure future of the Eritrean people.

We pledge to strengthen our networks and continue dialogue and make a positive contribution to the Improvement of the situation in Eritrea. We call on the EU, AU and international community to support our objective in promoting dialogue.

For more please follow: 
Conference declaration: EU must end support for the Eritrean dictatorship

Orders and Customary Laws of Eritrea – ስርዓታትን ሕግታት እንዳ’ባ ኤርትራ

እዚ ጽሑፍ’ዚ ካብ መርበብ ሓበሬታ ዛራ ጥበባት (Zara Tbebat) ዝተወስደ ኮይኑ ኣብ ኤርትራ ክንደይ ሕግታት ከም ዝነበረን ኣብ’ዚ ግዜ’ዚ ውን ወላ ደኣ ከም’ቲ ዝድለ ኣየገልግለ መሰረት ህዝቢ ኤርትራን ዋንነትን ስለዝኮነ ኣብ ፖለቲካዊ ስነ መጎት ኣዝ’ዩ ኣገዳሲ ቦታ እዩ ዘለዎ። ብፍላይ ኣብ ምምስራት ስርዓተ ኤርትራ እዞም ሕግታት እምነ መሰረትን መሰረት ደቀ-ባት ኤርትራ ዘውሕሱን ስለዝኾኑ ኩሉ ሰብ ክፈልጦም ክዕቅቦምን ግዴታ ኣለዎ። 

ኣብዚ ዝርዝር 32 ስርዓታትን ሕግታትን ቀሪቦም ኣለዉ። ኣብ ቀጻሊ ንነፍሲ ወከፍ ክዝርዝሮም ክፍትን እየ። 

1- ስርዓት ሎጎ-ሳርዳ – (ጥንታዊ ፊደላት ትግርኛ ጽሑፍ ዝተረኽቦ ናይ 13 ክ/ዘ) – Order of Logo-Sarda (13thC)

2- ስርዓት ኣድከመ ምልጋእ – ቅድሚ መግዛእቲ ጥልያን ዝተደብተረ – Order of Adkeme-Milga

3- ስርዓት ኣድግናተገለና – ቅድሚ መግዛእቲ ጥልያን ዝተደብተረ – Order of Adgine-Tegelena

4- ስርዓት ሎጎ-ጭዋ – ቅድሚ መግዛእቲ ጥልያን ዝተደብተረ (ናይ 15 ክ/ዘ ምዃኑ‘ዩ) – Order of Logo-Chewa

5- ስርዓት እንዳ ፍግራይ፡ ሰለስተ ዋዕላ ጽምሮ ትምዛኣ – ቅድሚ መግዛእቲ ጥልያን ዝተደብተረ (ናይ 13 ክ/ዘ ምዃኑ ይንገረሉ) – Order of Enda Figray : Seleste Waela Tsimro Timza’A

6- ስርዓት እንጋንኣ ዓጽሚ ሓርማዝ – ቅድሚ መግዛእቲ ጥልያን ዝተደብተረ – Order of Engan’A Atsimi Harmaz

7- ሕጊ ቡሮ ዓልን መድዓን (ሕጊ ዓፋር) – ቅድሚ መግዛእቲ ጥልያን ዝተደብተረ  – Buro Ali and Med’A (Afar Customary Law)

8- ስርዓት ካርነሽም – ኣብ ግዜ ጥልያን ዝተደብተረ  – Order of Karneshim

9- ስርዓት ደምበዛን – ኣብ ግዜ ጥልያን ዝተደብተረ – Order of Dembezan

10- ስርዓት ሸውዓተ ዓንሰባ – ኣብ ግዜ ጥልያን ዝተደብተረ  – Order of ShewAte Anseba

11- ሕጊ ሰሓርቲ-ላምዛ-ወቀርትን ዳምባን – ኣብ ግዜ ጥልያን ዝተደብተረ – Seharti – Lamza – Weqerti Customary Law

12- ስርዓት ሃብተስሉስ-ገብረክርስቶስ-ደቀተሽም – ኣብ ግዜ ጥልያን ዝተደብተረ – Habte Slus – Ghebrekristos-Deqi Tashim Customary Law

13- ስርዓት ምዔም-መሓዛ (ድሒሩ ምስ ስርዓት ኣድግና-ተገለባ ዝተጸንበረ) – Order of Mie Mehaza

14- ስርዓት ሓደግቲ – Order of Hadegti

15- ስርዓት ማይ-ኣድጊ – Order of Mai Adgi

16- ስርዓት ዝባን ሰራውን እንዳ ደቆን – Order of Ziban Seraw and Enda Deqon

17- ስርዓት ኣርባዕተ በዓልፋን – Order of Arbaete Bealfun

18- ስርዓት ጽንዓደግለ – Order of TsinAdegle

19- ሕጊ ዓደ‘ዓውለ – Ade Awle Customary Law

20- ስርዓት ዘማት – Order of Zemat

21- ስርዓት ሊባን – Order of Liban

22- ኣልቃኑን ኣልዕሩፍ ልሙስሊምን ሊቀባኢል ሳሆ (ሕጊ ሳሆ) – ኣብ ግዜ መግዛእቲ እንግሊዝ ዝተደብተረ – Alqanun Al’Eruf Limuslimin Liqebaeil Saho (Saho Customary Law)

23- ኣልቃኑን ኣልዕሩፍ ልሙስሊምን ሊቀባኢል ኣልሳሕል ኣልዓም (ሕጊ ሳሕል) – ኣብ ግዜ ፈደረሽን 50ታት ዝተደብተረ –
Alqanun Al’Eruf Limuslimin Liqebaeil Sahel Al’Am (Sahel 
Customary Law)

24- ኣልቃኑን ኣልዕሩፍ ልሙስሊምን ሊቀባኢል በኒዓምር (ሓድሽ ሕጊ በኒዓምር) – ኣብ ግዜ ፈደረሽን 50ታት ዝተደብተረ –
Alqanun Al’Eruf Limuslimin Liqebaeil Beni Amir (New
Customary Law of Beni Amir)

25- ሕጊ ቤት ታርቀ ቦጎስ ብሌን – ኣብ ግዜ ፈደረሽን 50ታት ዝተደብተረ – Bet Tarqe Bogos Bilen 
Customary Law

26- ሕጊ ማርያ (ሕግታት ማርያ ጸሊምን ቀይሕን) – ኣብ ግዜ መግዛእቲ ጥልያንን ኢትዮጵያን ዝተደብተረ – Marya
Customary Law (Marya Keyih and Marya Tselim)

27- ሕጊ ከልአ-መንሳዕ ፍትሕ መሓሪ – ኣብ ግዜ ጥልያን ዝተደፍተረ – Kel’E-Mensa’e fith Mehari
Customary Law

28- ሕጊ ብሌን ታርቀን ታውቀን 12ተ ነገደን (ዝተወሃሃደ ሕጊ ብሌን) – ድሕሪ ናጽነት ኤርትራ  – Bilen Tarqe-Tawqe-12 Neged Law 

29- ሕጊ ኩናማ (ቡያ) – ኣይተደፍተረን  – Kunama 
Customary  Law (Buya)

30- ሕጊ ናራ (ቡታ) – ኣይተደፍተረን  – Nara
Customary Law(Buta)

31- ሕጊ ብዳውየት (ኣልሳዋሊፍ) – ኣይተደፍተረን – Bidawet 
Customary  Law(Al-Sawalif)

32- ሕጊ ራሻይዳ (መድዓ) – ኣይተደፍተረን – Rashaida 
Customary  Law(Med’A)

Amid strong Internal Resistance, Dictator Isaias is coming through his state controlled Social Media to respond his own questions

Well, dictator Issaias is coming live tomorrow via the only PFDJ controlled TV channel.

He has no private Facebook channel. Everything is nationalized, I mean PFDJized.

By the way, who is the target now?

I hope he will not play any dirty with Anegala Merkel again.

Recently, a strong voice has exploded from a Catholic Priest, Abba Teklemichael Tewolde calling for a positve change towards peace and freedom. His bold and straight words have called what the people needs most. Abba Teklemichael stated tgat Eritreans are not demanding breads but justice and freedom. In addition, he calls the people of Eritrea to stand for their rights and dignity.

Abba Teklemichael Tewelde’s voice has received appreciation. Many Eritreans are out to support his voice by circulating the audio records and by changing their facebook profile picture as a sign of their solidarity.

In Eritrea, internal resistance is growing. Former Finance Minister, Ato Berhane Abrhe has also written two books that expose the existing synical system of PFDJ and called Eritreans to stand for their rights and dignity while protecting for their beloved country.

Dan Connell visits the heart of Zagwe Dynasty – Lalibela

Today, 02/11/2018, Dan Connell has shared some wonderful photos for his visit in of the most important but forgotten civilization center of the horn of Africa – the Zagwe Dynasty. Dan Connell’s visit to this site is important to Eritreans. Dan Connell can use his knowledge about Eritrea to create the missing link between pre-colonized Eritrean politics, colonial-era wartime revolution to build a hypothesis about the overall complexity of modern politics.


his kingdom was destroyed by Shoa kings and then the Solomonic kings tried to erase any mention about it from Ethiopian history. This attempt is what is called, “the lost history of Ethiopia”.

The Zagwe Dynasty had covered 4 centuries history(910 – 1275 AD) of Ethiopian history. Yet, it is the least researched period.

This was done on purpose to delete Agaw history in favor of Solomonic kingdom.

The fall of the Zagwe Dynasty was the beginning of chaos and bloody wars in the horn of Africa. Today’s Eritrea was part of the Zagwe Dynasty. However, after its scramble. Eritreans established their own centers. These centers include:

1. Adal Sultanate – later divided four centers. One of these centers later developed as an independent polity around Assab and gave birth to Rehayta Sultanate of Dankalia. Today, this Sultanate is part of the Dankal region of Eritrea or the Southern Red Sea Zone.

2. Bahre Negassi z – Debarwa – which had a control to Suakin, Sudan. This kingdom had covered the highland of Eritrea, the Eastern Red Sea, Sahel and to some extent across the Mereb river, upto Shire(today in Tigray region of Ethiopia). Seraye, Akeleguzay, Hamasien, Senhit, Sahel, Semhar and most parts of Eastern Gash-Setit were part of this kingdom. Massawa was its main port city.

3. Beni Amir Sultanate – Western lowland of Eritrea. This sultanate kingdom had a center in Kassala. Aqordat was also another important center of the Beni Amir tribes. Its control was covering all Barka region and Gash Setit.

This was the beginning of making Eritrea.

Italians consolidated these three small states in one and gave birth to the modern State of Eritrea (1890).

This history needs to be known by all Eritreans.

I hope Dan Conell will write his experiences about Lalibela in more detailed one.

Dan Conell is the most knowledgeable person on Earth about revolutionary history and politics, especially the EPLF part. He has published several books and hundreds of articles about Eritrea, Eritrean history and politics. His works can be visited at

Some of his books include:

1. Against All Odds(1993).

2. Conversation with Eritrean Political Prisoners(2005)

3. Rethinking Revolution: New Strategies for Democracy and Revolution(2001)

I believe his visit to Lalibela will give him more picture about the pre-colonization history of the horn and the complex political pattern that is becoming the cause of confusion in modern politics.

According to what he is sharing on his Facebook page, Dan Connell seems to have an extended visit to Ethiopia. He has shared a photo of his along the borderline between Eritrea and Ethiopia. His visit to Ethiopia after the peace agreement is very important. I hope he will share his opinions about the current developments within Ethiopia in regard to Eritrea – Ethiopia relationship.

Thank you, Dan.