Category Archives: Social Sciences

Meditiation on March 8

My say on March 8:

March 8 is a day of WOMEN, and it is a day to remind for those who give quotas or reserves as if it is a political, social or economical Rights. Women are ALL and they own ALL, they don’t want such gift, because they were the givers. And they did not give it to be given them back.

Rather, MEN should be given a day to think their inferiority complex that reminds them how inferiority driven they are in all they life activities. An inferior one always oppresses, dictates and tries to have a position, to be at a higher position, so that everybody can pay his/her penny time.

But, WOMEN, preferred to SAY, “OK, if you are such an inferior creature, deal with your inferiority though you should remember that you came to this earth through me.” She continued to say, “Even I gave you my womb to live in, why not anything that you may want for comfort.”

Therefore, March 8, is a day that reminds how our WOMEN are ready for such generous GIFT to the inferiority driven acts of human being and reminding US just the word “LOVE!”

Photo: From google, (edited one)

Just few words for 2014!

If I have words to write, I am writing

It is almost a year this I left my family back home. When I planned to get maried, it was in my mind to leave my family back-home, but I never dreamt it was such a hard experience. 

Imagine, when your baby is saying, “b…a…b..a….b…” being thousandas kilometers away from you. How hard it is?
Worse is, when you call, the telephone will respnd, “ezi Eri-Tel yu zidewelkumlu amil ayterekben.” Forget for the expenses, just 10 € PER 50 minutes, which is one of the most expensive telephone calls in the world. I said this, because there is no other means to communicate. I know that there are more expensive international calls, but, they have other means where they pay zero cent. But for me and other fellow Eritreans, it is unbearable. At least the line could have been ok.

Anyway, counting my expenses is not my objective just it came as a flash, forget it. To come back, Just i want to say hello to my beloved wife and ma belle Angeles and wish them all best wishes for 2014.


I love you all my family.

And I dedicate the year 2014 to our beloved brother whom we lost him on 30/12/2012. His always true friendship and great brother, as a mentor to hard work, hope, dream, reality, small talk and lots of works was his valuable and live legacy.

I am saying hello in his everlasting resting place and wish him peace of soul.


Simon Weldegabir (Rest in Peace). Just today, at this time, family said him good-bye.

How life is unfair?

Concepts of Localized Food products: Making Injera


Injera is the staple bread in the horn of Africa especially in countries like Eritrea and Ethiopia, Somali, and also in Yemen. Injera is a name given by Tigrigna and Amharic speakers written as እንጀራ. It is also named differently by different people and in different locations. For example; Oromo, Budenaa; Somali: Canjeero, Djibouti,  lahooh; Yemen,  lahoh. Over 60 million people consume injera on a daily basis and it is a major element of diet formulation. It is utilized in almost all-traditional cuisines. The bread is unique in appearance and texture. It is one of the most delicate food items to automate due to its characteristics that includes; “bubbly eye”, circular flat geometry, very elastic, smooth back surface and a fluffy texture. Preparation requires a long time process of between two to six days depending on type of grain used, use of starters, and weather condition.

 Injera can be produced from almost any staple grain, such as sorghum, pearl millet, wheat, barley, maize and teff. Grains selected affect injera indifferent ways such as the grain property such as grain rheology, nutritional content and biological properties. The method of injera preparation varies from household to household and from area to area.  However, in general, injera prparation involves mixing, fermentation and  baking. The ingredients used are one or two mixtures of grains, water, salt and a starter, which is usually left from the the previous dough and is added to intitiate the fermentation process.

Traditionally, injera is baked by pouring a fermented dough on a hot clay griddle and is covered when cooked. The dough is partially cooked to gelatinize the starch. The carbondioxide produced during the fermentation process is trapped and leavens the injera on baking. After baking, it is exposed without being covered to loss its heat content. Then, it is fully covered to avoid further removal of water inorder to avoid dehydration. A freshly baked injera can last for a maximum of seven days depending on the weather condition, coverage used and type of grain.

Injera making is still keeping its traditional mode of production techlonogy. But, the science is not yet well dealt and people are not fully awared on this. In addition, because of high consumers and continous urbanization of the region, people need an in-depth knowledge of making injera. There is also high market potential if the means of production is keeping the traditional sensory qualities and produced with more energy efficient, with effective time, extended shelf life and market availabilty.Image